Zamek w Czorsztynie

Czorsztyn i wegierska Niedzica niegdyś dumnie wznosiły się nad malowniczą doliną Dunajca. Po utworzeniu zapory wiele uległo zmianie. Obecnie dwie warownie już ze znacznie mniejszej wysokości przeglądają się w obszernej toni powstałego na Dunajcu jeziora Czorsztyńskiego, jednak nadal widok jest niezwykle urokliwy. Czorsztyn leży na mocno obronnym, skalistym wzniesieniu (z wapienia krynoidowego) będącym półwyspem oblewanym przez wody jeziora.

Na terenie zamku znajduje się stanowisko jednego z endemitów pienińskich – pszonaka pienińskiego. Ta roślina z małymi żółtymi kwiatami nie występuje w przyrodzie nigdzie indziej.
Dopiero końcem ubiegłego wieku udowodniono, że pierwotna nazwa Czorsztyna to Wronin, który był znaną tylko z przekazów warownią drewniano-ziemną. Wcześniej uważano te dwa obiekty za osobne warownie.
Zamek składa się z trzech części: zamku dolnego, średniego i górnego a całość tworzy o tzw. trwała ruinę. Leżący po stronie wschodniej zamek dolny jest najsłabiej zachowany i nie był jeszcze badany. W narożu płd.-wsch. murów obwodowych stała tu baszta i być może znajdowała się studnia oraz zabudowa mieszkalna dla służby. Droga do zamku średniego prowadziła przez potężną wieżę Baranowskiego (nazwa od starosty, który ją wybudował). Ta czworoboczna budowla posiadała 4 kondygnacje, była przystosowana do użycia artylerii i zastąpiła dawny budynek bramny w XVII wieku. Można w niej zauważyć relikty zapadni z XV wieku. Zamek średni pełnił funkcje gospodarcze.

Zamek stał się częstym motywem w literaturze i muzyce, przykładem może tu być „Na skalnym Podhalu” Tetmajera czy opera „Zamek na Czorsztynie” Kurpińskiego.
Mieściły się tu m.in. piekarnia i kuchnia. Oba te pomieszczenia powstały na fundamentach pierwotnej baszty-stołpu – najstarszego elementu zamku (dziś zachowana szczątkowo w niewysokich murach). Jej średnica dochodziła do 10 m a grubość murów do 3 m. Obecnie w kuchni prezentowana jest historia zamku. Do zamku górnego przechodzi się barokową klatką schodową. Mamy tu dwie sklepione komnaty – tzw. piwnica z wystawioną kamieniarką budowlaną z XVII wieku oraz tzw. strzelnica gdzie funkcjonuje sklepik z pamiątkami i minerałami. Przy dziedzińcu widać 6-metrowy otwór wykuty w skale będący cysterną na wodę deszczową. Poza tym także tutaj mieściła się kuchnia. Piętro zamku górnego to taras widokowy, rozciąga sie stąd piękny widok na Dunajec, Niedzicę, Pieniny Spiskie i Tatry. Kiedyś znajdowała się tu kaplica oraz część mieszkalna. Budynki te zwieńczone były rensansową attyką a mur tarczowy od wschodu (XIV wiek) posiadał ganek strażniczy. Warto wspomnieć jeszcze o łuku widocznym od strony jeziora. Nie jest on jak się wydaje dawną bramą do zamku górnego lecz sklepieniem założonym dla posadowienia zawnętrznego muru w miejscu gdzie skała zawierała naturalny ubytek.

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